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Although soldiers generally ranged in age from 18 to 45, boys as young as 12 often served as cavalry buglers or drummer boys, and some men in their fifties and sixties enlisted as privates. Not until Washington approved gubernatorial control of all new units was the problem resolved. What was different in the Union was the emergence of skilled, well-funded medical organizers who took proactive action, especially in the much enlarged United States Army Medical Department, and the United States Sanitary Commission, a new private agency. Ask your question. Voters became afraid of power being centralized in Washington, extravagant spending, and war profiteering. Of all soldiers, about 1,600,000 were males born in this country. Union soldiers were also issued a gray wool shirt and leather brogan shoes. A Union Soldier's Uniform from the Civil War, around 1865. Where was the first battle of the Civil War fought. The American Civil War, the bloodiest in the nation’s history, resulted in approximately 750,000 deaths.1The war touched the life of nearly every American as military mobilization reached levels never seen before or since. Union soldiers were usually called Yankees or Bluebellies. The government needed the coal more than the draftees, so it ignored the largely non-violent draft dodging there. Republican prosecutors in the Midwest accused some Copperhead activists of treason in a series of trials in 1864. Through prayer, sermons and welfare operations, the agents ministered to soldiers' spiritual as well as temporal needs as they sought to bring the men to a Christian way of life. In the early part of the Civil War, Union soldiers in camps or in the field were housed in large tents, especially the cone shaped Sibley tent. Grant, S-M. "'Mortal in this season': Union Surgeons and the Narrative of Medical Modernisation in the American Civil War.". Frederick Law Olmsted, a famous landscape architect, was the highly efficient executive director of the Sanitary Commission. They became a matter of state pride, with orphans were paraded around at rallies to display the power of a patriotic schooling. , Small-scale riots broke out in ethnic German and Irish districts, and in areas along the Ohio River with many Copperheads. In 1861–63 most were immediately paroled; after the parole exchange system broke down in 1863, about 195,000 went to Confederate prison camps. He blamed Jewish traders and expelled them from his lines in 1862 but Lincoln quickly overruled this show of anti-semitism. They included Missouri, Kentucky, Maryland, and Delaware. Union Soldiers summary: The number of Union soldiers is estimated to be between 1.5 million and 2.4 million. Operations in the South meant a dangerous and new disease environment, bringing diarrhea, dysentery, typhoid fever, and malaria. This was partly due to the efforts of Robert Smalls, who, while still a slave, won fame by defecting from the Confederacy, and bringing a Confederate transport ship which he was piloting. ", Jane Flaherty, "'The Exhausted Condition of the Treasury' on the Eve of the Civil War,", Sarah T. Phillips et al. Few Yankees professed to fight for racial equality, however. , The Protestant religion was quite strong in the North in the 1860s. It portrayed the War as a great moral crusade against a decadent Southern civilization corrupted by slavery. Though the Democrats gained control of the legislature, they were unable to impede the war effort. The term "Union" occurs in the first governing document of the United States, the Articles of Confederation and Perpetual Union.  Of these soldiers, 596,670 were killed, wounded or went missing. , The Sanitary Commission collected enormous amounts of statistical data, and opened up the problems of storing information for fast access and mechanically searching for data patterns. ", Learn how and when to remove this template message, Department of Virginia and North Carolina, Cavalry Corps of the Military Division of the Mississippi, District of West Florida and South Alabama, 93rd New York Volunteer Infantry Regiment, For Cause and Comrades: Why Men Fought in the Civil War, 26th Wisconsin Volunteer Infantry Regiment, Military history of African Americans in the American Civil War, Irish Americans in the American Civil War, German Americans in the American Civil War, Native Americans in the American Civil War, "James McPherson: What They Fought For, 1861–1865", "Desertion (Confederate) during the Civil War", Civil War Home: Ethnic groups in the Union Army, U.S. Civil War Era Uniforms and Accoutrements, Official Army register of the Volunteer Force 1861; 1862; 1863; 1864; 1865, Roll of Honor: Names of Soldiers who died in Defense of the Union Vols 1–8, Roll of Honor: Names of Soldiers who died in Defense of the Union Vols 9–12, Roll of Honor: Names of Soldiers who died in Defense of the Union Vols 13–15, Roll of Honor: Names of Soldiers who died in Defense of the Union Vols. The war years were quite prosperous except where serious fighting and guerrilla warfare ravaged the countryside. The problem was that the War Department, under the disorganized leadership of Simon Cameron, also authorized local and private groups to raise regiments. Critics said the cotton trade helped the South, prolonged the war and fostered corruption. Because of the widespread attacks and the protection offered by Confederate sympathizers, Federal leaders issued General Order No. No longer welcome in the kingdoms of their birth, they emigrated to the United States where they were nicknamed “Forty-Eighters” and greeted as heroes. Roving insurgent bands such as Quantrill's Raiders and the men of Bloody Bill Anderson terrorized the countryside, striking both military installations and civilian settlements. They came with family support for reasons of patriotism and excitement. Even before the war started, the phrase "preserve the Union" was commonplace, and a "union of states" had been used to refer to the entire United States of America. West Virginia separated from Virginia and became part of the Union during the war, on June 20, 1863. Some units only had between four and eight companies and were generally known as battalions. Copperhead Democrats called the war a failure, and it became an increasingly partisan Republican effort. Union officers were identified by epaulets and shoulder straps and wore either double-breasted frock coats or single-breasted frock coats, depending on their individual rank. It recommended activities that family members could perform in order to aid the Union cause. Shannon Smith Bennett, "Draft Resistance and Rioting." Typically, politicians used their local organizations to raise troops and were in line (if healthy enough) to become colonel. On April 27, 1865, the United States experiences its worst maritime disaster in history. Year by year, the Confederacy shrank and lost control of increasing quantities of resources and population. "'I never wood git tired of wrighting to you. Some tried to escape but few succeeded.  Military railways, occasionally used in earlier wars, provided mass movement of troops. Others point to less overtly political reasons to fight, such as the defense of one's home and family, or the honor and brotherhood to be preserved when fighting alongside other men. Michael B. Chesson, "Prison Camps and Prisoners of War," in Steven E. Woodworth, ed. Brodrecht, Grant R. "Our Country: Northern Evangelicals and the Union during the Civil War and Reconstruction." The United States Christian Commission sent agents into the Army camps to provide psychological support as well as books, newspapers, food and clothing. Union soldiers were called Federals, Yankees, Blue bellies, Abolitionists, Billy Yanks.Confederates were called Rebels, Butternuts, Johnnies (or Johnny Rebs), Secesh. The first wave in spring was called up for only 90 days, then the soldiers went home or reenlisted. rosa262001 6 hours ago History Middle School +5 pts. That was the day that Congress initially approved and authorized subsidy to allow and support a volunteer army of up to 500,000 men to the cause. Smith, Charles Winston and Charles Judah, eds. Red Army, Soviet army created by the Communist government after the Bolshevik Revolution of 1917. The principal victims of the rioting were African Americans and activists in the anti-slavery movement. Apart from tariffs, the largest revenue by far came from new excise taxes—a sort of value added tax—that was imposed on every sort of manufactured item. "Have Social Historians Lost the Civil War? Nevertheless, between April 1861 and April 1865, at least 2,128,948 men served in the United States Army, of whom the majority were volunteers.  In the South, the Union army shot all the horses it did not need to keep them out of Confederate hands. Even more important, the hundreds of new banks that were allowed to open were required to purchase government bonds. Over 30,000 Union and nearly 26,000 Confederate prisoners died in captivity.  There were a few small scale draft riots in rural areas of the Midwest and in the coal regions of Pennsylvania. The Union never recognized the legitimacy of the Confederacy's secession and maintained at all times that it remained entirely a part of the United States of America. When the American Civil War began in April 1861, the U.S. Army consisted of ten regiments of infantry, four of artillery, two of cavalry, two of dragoons, and three of mounted infantry. McPherson states that witnessing the slave system of the Confederacy first-hand also strengthened the anti-slavery views of Union soldiers, who were appalled by its brutality.  Numerous other new agencies also targeted the medical and morale needs of soldiers, including the United States Christian Commission, as well as smaller private agencies, such as the Women's Central Association of Relief for Sick and Wounded in the Army (WCAR), founded in 1861 by Henry Whitney Bellows, a Unitarian minister, and the social reformer Dorothea Dix. Most assumed they were Union reinforcements, but a few feared they were Confederates. With the increased age group, there came more ways to get out of serving if selected.  The initial call-up was for just three months, after which many of these men chose to reenlist for an additional three years. The mob set fire to everything from African American churches and an orphanage for "colored children" as well as the homes of certain prominent Protestant abolitionists. Land grants went to railroad construction companies to open up the western plains and link up to California. Perversely, the Confederate misappropriation of the term has obscured who the real rebels were during the war: the black women, men, and children that the Confederacy sought to keep enslaved. Later waves enlisted for three years. Second came much higher tariffs, through several Morrill tariff laws. It assumed an inevitable Union victory. These campaigns were characterized by another strategic notion of Grant's-better known as total war—denying the enemy access to resources needed to continue the war by widespread destruction of its factories and farms along the paths of the invading Union armies. Citizen soldiers defied the enemy, but were also against being told what to do by the army. 1. About 200,000 enlistments were by men born in one of the German states (although this is somewhat speculative since anyone serving from a German family tended to be identified as German regardless of where they were actually born), John K. Mahon, "Civil War Infantry Assault Tactics. What were Union soldiers known as? Allan Nevins is particularly scathing of this in his analysis: "A President more exact, systematic and vigilant than Lincoln, a Secretary more alert and clearheaded than Cameron, would have prevented these difficulties.". Members of the committee much preferred political generals with a satisfactory political record. Ph.D. In such a bitterly divided state, neighbors frequently used the excuse of war to settle personal grudges and took up arms against neighbors. East Tennessee never supported the Confederacy, and Unionists there became powerful state leaders, including governors Andrew Johnson and William G. Brownlow. Although there were other Confederate armies that surrendered in the following weeks, such as Joseph E. Johnston's in North Carolina, this date was nevertheless symbolic of the end of the bloodiest war in American history, the end of the Confederate States of America, and the beginning of the slow process of Reconstruction. HARQUEBUSIERS. Alleging that the war was merely an upper class abolitionist war to free slaves who might move north and compete for jobs and housing, the poorer classes did not welcome a draft, especially one from which a richer man could buy an exemption. The Northern soldiers were called either "Yankees," " the Yanks," or the "Billy Yanks." Source: "The Civil War Dictionary" by Mark M. Boatner Generals were forced to reexamine the offensive minded tactics developed during the Mexican–American War where attackers could mass to within 100 yards of the defensive lines, the maximum effective range of smoothbore muskets. , There were many other innovations brought by necessity. Click here to get an answer to your question ️ true or false the union soldiers were sometimes called rebels 1. Soldiers, except for officers were issued uniforms. The high-quality wool was warm in winter but itchy and hot in the heat of summer. For example, the Bald Knobbers were the term for several law-and-order vigilante groups in the Ozarks. Typically, the Department or District commander also had field command of the army of the same name, but some conflicts within the ranks occurred when this was not true, particularly when an army crossed a geographic boundary. At the same time they passed new taxes to pay for part of the war and issued large amounts of bonds to pay for most of the rest. The United States needed $3.1 billion to pay for the immense armies and fleets raised to fight the Civil War—over $400 million just in 1862 alone. Scott was an elderly veteran of the War of 1812 and the Mexican–American War and could not perform his duties effectively. The Army had plenty of cash to purchase them from farmers and breeders but especially in the early months the quality was mixed.  The Democratic Party strongly supported the war at the beginning in 1861, but by 1862, was split between the War Democrats and the anti-war element known as Peace Democrats, led by the extremist "Copperheads". The first battle of the Civil War was fought at Fort Sumter. Catholics, Episcopalians, Lutherans and conservative Presbyterians generally avoided any discussion of the war, so it would not bitterly divide their membership. Log in. The problem with volunteering, however, was its serious lack of planning, leadership, and organization a… Southern Unionists were extensively used as anti-guerrilla paramilitary forces. The calls for more and more soldiers continued, so states and localities responded by offering cash bonuses. Much of the political rhetoric of the era had a distinct religious tone. Join now. In the context of the American Civil War, the Union is sometimes referred to as "the North", both then and now, as opposed to the Confederacy, which was "the South".  This means that about 1,600,000 enlistments were made by men who were born in the United States, including about 200,000 African Americans. The pants were held up with suspenders, and leather shoes called brogans laced up over the ankle. Enthusiastic young men clamored to join the Union army in 1861. Grant laid siege to Lee's army at Petersburg, Virginia, and eventually captured Richmond, the capital of the Confederacy. "The North's Empty Purse, 1861–1862,", Hill, Joseph A. The Northeast and Midwest provided soldiers, food, horses, financial support, and training camps. , Desertion was a major problem for both sides. When the American Civil War began in April 1861, the U.S. Army consisted of ten regiments of infantry, four of artillery, two of cavalry, two of dragoons, and three of mounted infantry. Initially focused on the draft, the protests quickly expanded into violent attacks on blacks in New York City, with many killed on the streets. Lincoln's charm and willingness to cooperate with political and personal enemies made Washington work much more smoothly than Richmond, the Confederate capital, and his wit smoothed many rough edges. The Treasury started buying cotton during the war, for shipment to Europe and northern mills. Of the approximately 900 West Point graduates who were then civilians, 400 returned to the United States Army and 99 to the Confederate. What were Southern soldiers called? Historian Michael Smith, argues that, as the war ground on year after year, the spirit of American republicanism grew stronger and generated fears of corruption in high places. In his 1997 book examining the motivations of the American Civil War's soldiers, For Cause and Comrades, historian James M. McPherson states that Union soldiers fought to preserve the United States, as well as to end slavery, stating that: While restoration of the Union was the main goal for which they fought, they became convinced that this goal was unattainable without striking against slavery. Lincoln would write countless letters and endorsements reducing the sentences of a soldier’s action from death to labor during the war. What were Southern soldiers called? However, brigades were changed easily as the situation demanded; under the regimental system the regiment was the main permanent grouping. , Both sides operated prison camps; they handled about 400,000 captives, but many other prisoners were quickly released and never sent to camps. Nor did many white Union soldiers claim to fight solely or even primarily for emancipation.  Orphan schools like the Pennsylvania Soldiers' Orphan School, also spoke of the broader public welfare experiment that began as part of the aftermath of the Civil War. These were called bushwhackers, because they hid in the woods where they could attack Union troops before fading back into the wild.  Families passed along stories of their bitter experiences down through several generations—Harry Truman's grandparents were caught up in the raids and he would tell of how they were kept in concentration camps. " One Pennsylvanian Union soldier spoke to a slave woman whose husband was whipped, and was appalled by what she had to tell him of slavery. The Confederate soldiers were sometimes called "rebels" or "rebs." ", Hams, Emily J. The new recruits spent their time drilling in company and regiment formations. On short notice, the army forced almost 20,000 people, mostly women, children and the elderly, to leave their homes. Union cavalry could sweep through and track down Confederate guerrillas, who no longer had places to hide and people and infrastructure to support them. The poor formed clubs that would buy exemptions for their unlucky members. Vinovskis, Maris A., ed. Now if the color bearer were to get shot the flag would immediately be picked up by … Men who had been Democrats before the war often abstained or voted Republican. Even though the issue of desertion was a serious one, Lincoln found it … By contrast the Confederacy gave paper promissory notes when it seized property, so that even loyal Confederates would hide their horses and mules rather than sell them for dubious paper. Harquebusiers were formerly foot soldiers. Incidentally, if you’ll read the Confederate emancipation bill, you’ll notice that black Confederate soldiers were to receive the same pay and benefits as other soldiers, whereas, thanks to Lincoln, for many months black Union soldiers were paid less than other soldiers. Among such units was the 1st Alabama Cavalry Regiment, which served as William Sherman's personal escort on his march to the sea. However, the party increasingly split down the middle between the moderates who supported the war effort, and the peace element, including Copperheads, who did not. About 200,000 enlistments were by men born in one of the German states (although this is somewhat speculative since anyone serving from a German family tended to be identified as German regardless of where they were actually born).  Irish Catholic and other workers fought police, militia and regular army units until the Army used artillery to sweep the streets. Foote, Lorien and Kanisorn Wongsrichanalai. Lincoln, as the leader of the moderate and conservative factions of the Republican Party, often crossed swords with the Radical Republicans, led by Stevens and Sumner. H. Hardtack: Hardtack is a term used to describe the hard crackers often issued to soldiers of both sides during the Civil War. Because the United States (Union) regulation color was already dark blue, the Confederates chose gray.  By 1866, the Milton Bradley Company was selling "The Myriopticon: A Historical Panorama of the Rebellion" that allowed children to stage a neighborhood show that would explain the war. Holmes County, Ohio was an isolated parochial area dominated by Pennsylvania Dutch and some recent German immigrants. The Northern buyers could make heavy profits, which annoyed soldiers like Ulysses Grant. It scored major gains in the 1862 elections, and elected the moderate Horatio Seymour as governor of New York.  Washington was especially helpful in 1864 in arranging furloughs to allow Hoosier soldiers to return home so they could vote in elections. Cimbala, Paul A. and Randall M. Miller, eds. More than 17,000 black Mississippi slaves and freedmen fought for the Union.A large but undetermined number of slaves se… Local politicians denounced Lincoln and Congress as despotic, seeing the draft law as a violation of their local autonomy. But for the most part, the foreign-born soldiers were scattered as individuals throughout units.. In foreign affairs the Union was the only side recognized by all other nations, none of which officially recognized the Confederate government. Nevertheless, old-fashioned methodology had to be recognized and overcome. , Military and reconstruction issues were another matter. However, Southern Unionists were not necessarily northern sympathizers and many of them, although opposing secession, supported the Confederacy once it was a fact. A) Billy Yanks B) Johnny Reb C) Union Clinchers D) Mighty Militia Another type of soldier also served the Union — somewhat unusual, these troops were Confederate soldiers called Galvanized Yankees.In the midst of the Civil War, the United States was also dealing with another issue — that of the many emigrants heading westward. Confederate soldiers were called rebel, Grayback (because of the color of their uniform), Grays, Johnny Reb, Johnny, or just plain reb. He says most men demonstrated dual commitments as providers and nurturers and believed that husband and wife had mutual obligations toward their children. Many soldiers suffered from heat exhaustion on long marches as a result.  Most churches made an effort to support their soldiers in the field and especially their families back home. , The Christian Commission comprised 6,000 volunteers who aided chaplains in many ways. , Discontent with the 1863 draft law led to riots in several cities and in rural areas as well. It is a misconception that the South held an advantage because of the large percentage of professional officers who resigned to join the Confederate army. It looked back to Jacksonian Democracy for inspiration—with ideals that promoted an agrarian rather than industrialized concept of society. This required that he master entirely new skills as a strategist and diplomat. The candidates added that rapid modernization was putting too much political power in the hands of Eastern financiers and industrialists.  Additionally, the Union states had a manpower advantage of five to two at the start of the war.. There were only 16,367 men in the U.S. Army, including 1,108 commissioned officers. The Southern soldiers were called either the "Rebels" or "Johnny Rebs." The rapid spread of recent inventions such as the reaper and mower made the work force efficient, even as hundreds of thousands of farmers were in the army. They said they wanted to restore "the Union as it was" (that is, with the South and with slavery) but they realized that the Confederacy would never voluntarily rejoin the U.S. The most prominent Copperhead was Ohio's Clement L. Vallandigham, a Congressman and leader of the Democratic Party in Ohio. But from the beginning of the war, there were some soldiers whose nationalism fused with antislavery conviction to produce an ideological mix of Liberty and Union, one and inseparable. Border states - These states were slave states that did not leave the Union, but largely supported the cause of the Confederates. , The North's most important war measure was perhaps the creation of a system of national banks that provided a sound currency for the industrial expansion. Meanwhile, the Union turned its growing potential advantage into a much stronger military force. The Union Army was composed of numerous organizations, which were generally organized geographically. The committee distrusted graduates of the US Military Academy at West Point, since many of the academy's alumni were leaders of the enemy army. Northern textile manufacturers needed cotton to remain in business and to make uniforms, while cotton exports to Europe provided an important source of gold to finance the war. While business had been slow or depressed in spring 1861, because of war fears and Southern boycotts, by fall business was hiring again, offering young men jobs that were an alternative way to help win the war. Battlefield supplies were a major problem. Lincoln's call forced the border states to choose sides, and four seceded, making the Confederacy eleven states strong. But that is to easy an answer. In addition, almost 200 West Point graduates who had previously left the Army, including Ulysses S. Grant, William Tecumseh Sherman, and Braxton Bragg, returned to service at the outbreak of the war. Attackers would have to endure one volley of inaccurate smoothbore musket fire before they could close with the defenders. ", Chris Walsh, "'Cowardice Weakness or Infirmity, Whichever It May Be Termed': A Shadow History of the Civil War.". State banks lost their power to issue banknotes. The Royal Warrant declared that the “The King’s, or first colour of every regiment, is to be the Great Union throughout.” The royal red color was intended to make it clear that the soldiers belonged to the king. "Lincoln and the Patronage,", Paludan, Phillip S. "The American Civil War Considered as a Crisis in Law and Order,", Cotterill, R. S. "The Louisville and Nashville Railroad 1861–1865,", Hammond, Bray. In terms of Congress the opposition against the war was nearly powerless—as was the case in most states. They were regarded by many as elite troops and often held in reserve during battles in case of emergencies. General Montgomery C. Meigs was one of the most important Union Army leaders in this field. , Secretary Chase, though a long-time free-trader, worked with Morrill to pass a second tariff bill in summer 1861, raising rates another 10 points in order to generate more revenues. Twelve civilian rioters died, and an unknown number were wounded. During the 37th and 38th Congresses, the committee investigated every aspect of Union military operations, with special attention to finding commanders culpable for military defeats. "The 12th Missouri Infantry: A Socio-Military Profile of a Union Regiment,". Therefore, the ratio of U.S. Army to Confederate professional officers was 642 to 283. Corps badges were originally worn by Union soldiers on the top of their army forage cap (kepi), left side of the hat, or over their left breast. Some clergymen who supported the Confederacy were denounced as Copperheads, especially in the border regions. The Union Army was composed of many different ethnic groups, including large numbers of immigrants. Washington decided to keep the small regular army intact; it had only 16,000 men and was needed to guard the frontier. The electric telegraph was used by both sides, which enabled political and senior military leaders to pass orders to and receive reports from commanders in the field. By far the most important were the New York City draft riots of July 13 to July 16, 1863. Payment in the Confederate Army was even slower and less regular. Many immigrant soldiers formed their own regiments, such as the Irish Brigade (69th New York, 63rd New York, 88th New York, 28th Massachusetts, 116th Pennsylvania); the Swiss Rifles (15th Missouri); the Gardes de Lafayette (55th New York); the Garibaldi Guard (39th New York); the Martinez Militia (1st New Mexico); the Polish Legion (58th New York); the German Rangers; Sigel Rifles (52nd New York, inheriting the 7th); the Cameron Highlanders (79th New York Volunteer Infantry); and the Scandinavian Regiment (15th Wisconsin). Confederate States of America, the government of 11 Southern states that seceded from the Union in 1860–61, following the election of Abraham Lincoln as U.S. president, prompting the American Civil War (1861–65). Link, "'This Bastard New Virginia': Slavery, West Virginia Exceptionalism, and the Secession Crisis,", Sarah Bohl, "A War on Civilians: Order Number 11 and the Evacuation of Western Missouri,", Louis De Falaise, "General Stephen Gano Burbridge's Command in Kentucky,", Great Seal of the United States of America. Copperheads damaged the Union soldiers came from outside of America control that would buy exemptions for their unlucky.! Burbridge was dismissed in February 1865 no clothing allowance was deducted 10 ] about 1 out of serving selected. Line toward the white South ; under the command of a brigadier general action from death to during! The Confederates: [ 6 ] obeyed the rules but performed well during battle popular for... Third came the nation, or `` Johnny Reb. people had been Democrats before war. Became organized criminal gangs after the war, which annoyed soldiers like ulysses Grant efforts of the war abstained... 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Failure, and even larger numbers were temporarily incapacitated by wounds, disease, conditions! With volunteering, however ( 1828–1883 ) took over in 1864, the Pacific railroad Act the... [ 62 ] third, the Protestant religion was quite small compared to 15.5 % for prisons! Years after the Bolshevik Revolution of 1917 the Articles of Confederation and Perpetual.! Individuals throughout units. [ 33 ] final days ) and 215,000 imprisoned hospitals and homes. An ankle high shoe worn by soldiers during the war to settle personal grudges and took up arms against.!